What Is Computer Software, Application Software And Systems Software?

A computer’s software refers to a program (or a group of programs) which give a computer instructions on what to do and how to operate. Software programs can provide one main task, or multiple main tasks.

As an example, a program designed to edit digital photographs has one key task (i.e. to allow for editing of photos) – naturally it would have numerous sub-tasks though (i.e. red eye removal, color correction features, resizing and cropping/cutting of an image).

On the other hand, a computer’s operating system (a complex piece of software which basically handles and runs the entire computer) would carry out many main tasks – for example handling input and output (i.e. the user typing in with a keyword, or audio coming out of speakers), memory allocation, managing the computer’s hardware components (these are the electrical components which power a computer) and much more.

Software can be grouped into roughly two groups: application software and systems software. Essentially, software which facilitates just one main task (for example, photo editing software as in the above example) would be counted as application software. This is contrasted to systems software which refers to complex, multi-task programs which help to run the entire system – such as an operating system.

These two main groups of software are discussed in more detail below:

Application Software

This is software which is installed on an operating system (See “Systems Software” below for more information). As mentioned above, this type of software tends to perform just one main task. Another example of application software would be a website browser: this is the program which you are probably using right now to view this article. Examples of a browser include Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. In short, their main task/function is to facilitate you in surfing the internet.

Other types of application software are as follows:

  • Word Processing – this type of software allows you to type up documents and letters. Examples include Microsoft Office Word and Open Office.
  • Antivirus Software – this type of software helps protect your computer system against malicious threats such as viruses and malware. Examples include Norton Antivirus, Kaspersky Antivirus and AVG Anti-virus.
  • Photo Editing – this type of software can be used to edit and manipulate photos and other digital images in various ways. Examples include Paint.net, Corel PaintShop Pro and Adobe Photoshop.

Systems Software

This type of software is quite accurately described as being at the very core of any computer system. Without systems software, a computer could not really function. In short, it manages every aspect of a computer system – from how the hardware interacts with the software (‘drivers’) to giving the user an interface and platform to interact with the system (‘operating system’). The operating system – or ‘OS’ – is the software that loads up after your computer is switched on. It’s where all application software is installed on. Examples of an OS include Microsoft Windows (XP, Vista, 7 etc), Linux (Ubuntu, CentOS) and Apple Mac OS X.

Other types of systems software include device drives (these make the hardware components function correctly with the software and computer system) and utilities (these are also called ‘utility tools’ and they help monitor, maintain, check and analyze different parts of a computer; such as ‘Task Manager’ and ‘Disk Defragment on Windows OSes).

Computer Monitor Flyback Transformer – Replacement and Substitution

The Computer Monitor flyback transformer comes with many types of parts number, designed and inductance winding values. Although some may have different part numbers, they can be use d to substitue on another model of monitor! The Monitor flyback transformer is manufactures by many different manufacturers thus many different kinds of part numbers are produced. If you know exactly the winding value of each flyback transformer then it is easy for you find a replacement.

One good example is the Samsung Samtron flyback transformer with a part number of FKD15A001 and it is the same as FKG15A001. Another good part number is the Acer monitor-19.00026 which is same as 19.00038. In order to find out whether a particular flyback transformer can be replace with another part number or even with another brand of flyback transformer is to use an inductance meter. It is compulsory to have one.

Normally a monitor flyback transformer have few pins which are important such as the B plus (+) pin, horizontal collector pulse pin, G1, AFC (automatic frequency control), X-RAY PROTECTION pin, ABL (automatic blanking limiter), ground, and horizontal centering pin. If you want 100% sure that the substitute flyback transformer can work for your computer monitor, you must first calculate the inductance values for each winding such as what is the primary winding inductance value, between ground to AFC and ground to G1.

The winding tolerances should be around 5-10 percent and please make sure you know which pin you are measuring. Let’s say the original flyback primary winding (B+ pin and collector pulse pin) have a inductance value of 1.5 milihenry then the substitution flyback should have a value between 1.45 to 1.65 milihenry. If the winding inductance value is too high or too low, it will caused the monitor horizontal size display to becomes too big or too small horizontally and even can burn the Horizontal output transistor (HOT) in a very short time.

Your next try is to find out the value of Ground to G1, Ground to AFC and so on. If you want to find out the ABL pin you can always refer to my electronic repair website which is at the bottom of this article. Owning a flyback transformer schematic or circuit diagram is the best way to find the correct pins. If you don’t have the information then you have to find the pin with the help of inductance meter. Sometimes, searching the Internet will help you get the flyback schematic.

It might take you a lot of time to understand the art of testing the inductance value of flyback but the time you have spend is well worth and who knows one day you can find the right replacement of monitor flyback transformer even without the help of a flyback transformer cross reference schematic. One last word, whether it is a Imac, Hitachi, Sony, Rca TV, or any type of flyback transformer, the ways of finding the replacement is the same. It just needs hard work such as study the some flyback schematic diagram and begin to practice with the help of your inductance meter.

A Common Analogy For The PC Computer Disk Defragment That You Can Understand

To begin with, what is a fragmented disk? A fragmented disk is the scattering of parts of a file throughout a disk, as when the operating system breaks up the file and fits it into the spaces left vacant by previously deleted files.

On a Microsoft Windows operating PC there is a hard disk utility that you can run right now that will help enhance your computers performance. It is the disk defragment. The common analogy for disk defragment would be like a standard filing cabinet. The filing cabinet contains folders with documents in those folders. Sometimes documents get placed in the wrong folders. Sometimes the folders get arranged in a haphazard way to where it takes time to find the folder and even more time to find the document in the folders. When you take the time to manually go through each folder ensuring that the right documents are in the proper folders, then organize the folders in the cabinet in some logical fashion to where you can easily find the folders with the proper documents in them, you have done what disk defragment does. Fortunately you do not have to exert any physical effort to organize the “filing cabinet” in your computer that is called your hard drive.

By having a properly organized filing cabinet, you save time in searching for the documents you need. The same holds true for your PC. By running a defragment on your disk you organize the files on the disk so that the computer does not expend more effort than necessary in trying to find all the parts of the document you want when you go to get it.

Performing a disk defragment on any Microsoft Windows PC is easy. The Disk Defragment tool is found by going to:

start>all programs>accessories>system tools

A tip that I have learned about using this utility is to run it when you are not going to be using the computer for a while. You might want to run this before you go to bed at night. The reason I recommend this is that if you have not run this in a while, or ever, it may take several hours for the computer to organize the data.

When you run this utility you will have started on a system we call normal computer hygiene. Computer hygiene is preventive maintenance much like changing the oil in your car. If you maintain your car with an oil change service your car will serve you well for many years. If you do not your car may break down sooner than you expect. The same holds true with the computer you have invested your hard-earned money.